Xie Qinggao 謝淸高 (°1765-†1821), an eighteenth-century mariner, was the first Chinese person to tell his compatriots what he saw and heard in foreign lands. Hai Lu 海錄 (Maritime journals), a book by Yang Bingnan 楊炳南, mentions ninety-five countries and regions that Xie Qinggao either visited or heard about in the fourteen years he spent at sea, from 1782 to 1796.
Xie Qinggao was born in Jin Pan Bao, in the region of Jia Ying Zhou (now the District of Mei 嘉應州), which was in the Province of Guangdong 廣東. He was an intelligent child, with great knowledge and a good memory. When he grew up, he accompanied a merchant on a business trip to the Island of Hainan 海南, in order to earn a living. The year he turned eighteen, the ship on which he was sailing was caught in a storm and sank. He was rescued by a foreign merchant ship and joined its crew, which led him to foreign countries on business. Every year he travelled between the coastal countries in the East and the West, learning foreign languages, visiting the islands and fortresses and memorizing their names, and becoming acquainted with the local habits, customs and products. When he lost his sight, he settled in Macao, where, in the spring of 1820, he met Yang Bingnan 楊炳南, a fellow countryman who held the title of juren 舉人 (granted to those who passed the Provincial Exam during the Qing Dynasty). Yang Bingnan heard Xie Qinggao recount what he had seen and heard in foreign lands and felt the stories had great value, so he recorded them in Hai Lu.
Southeast Asia, India, Europe, the Americas, Africa, Oceania and the Pacific Islands are among the ninety-five countries and regions mentioned in the book. At the time, feudalism was coming to an end in China, and the country had isolated itself from the rest of the world. Hai Lu describes the situation in the foreign countries, especially the Western countries, which caught the attention of cultured, perceptive men in China who had progressive ideas and wanted to know what was going on in the world. When Lin Zexu 林則徐, a high-ranking Mandarin, led the fight against the English in Guangdong to ban opium, he read Hai Lu. The oldest, xylographic edition of the book was published in Yuedong 粵東 (Eastern Guangdong Province) and launched in 1820. According to Lin Zexu, the book contained relatively detailed reports on foreign matters. 2 Hai Guo Tu Zhi 海國圖志 (Illustrated history of coastal countries), by Wei Yuan 魏源, and Ying Huan Zhi Lue 瀛寰志略(Brief history of the world), by Xu Jishe 徐繼畬, both include information from Hai Lu, a book that to this day remains an important document for the study of the history of relations and transportation between China and the West, and the history of the Chinese living in Southeast Asia.
Hai Lu focuses on Xie Qinggao's connection to Portugal, a subject that neither Chinese nor foreign scholars have studied in depth or clarified. Based on the studies done by my predecessors, I will begin by trying to examine and clarify this subject, which is relatively significant in the history of Sino-Portuguese cultural exchange.
Hai Lu contains very detailed stories related to the Portuguese and in some cases explains that they were told by the Portuguese themselves. One of the stories involves a meeting between the Portuguese and the cannibalistic "barbarians" on a mountain in Bantam, on the Island of Java. It goes as follows: "A foreigner from Xiyang 西洋 [Portugal] said: Ships from his country went to that place often. [Once], the ship's crew members sneaked up the dangerous mountain to have a look, and in the distance they saw that the mountain barbarians were in a cave eating raw fish. Realizing that they were being watched, [the barbarians] began yelling and chasing the Portuguese, who ran every which way. Those who were left behind were killed [by the barbarians], who argued among each other to eat raw men. Only sixteen men made it safely back to the ship. They hastened to hoist the sails and leave. From then on, no one dared return to that place."3 Stories such as this can only be heard directly or indirectly from the surviving crew members of the Portuguese ship, who were lucky enough to get away.
According to the book, Bandjarmasin, on the Island of Kalimantan (Borneo), was rich in diamonds, and the Portuguese merchants argued over them, spending all the money they had. The diamonds were large and, "[...] even though at night they were kept in a room that was well closed, they still sparkled, and all the foreigners considered them treasures. One stone could cost over one-hundred thousand silver taels. When merchants from Xiyang found extremely large diamonds, they considered them priceless treasures and did not hesitate to buy them, even if it took all the money they had.”4
Xie Qinggao explained that the route the Portuguese ships followed from China or Southeast Asia to Goa, in India, was to the West of Padang and to the East of Nias. 5 This means that, to leave Indonesia, the ships crossed Selat Sunda then followed a north-westerly course along the coast. In reference to Xiao Xiyang 小西洋(Goa), Xie Qinggao said that "[...] when he arrived there on a foreign ship from Xiyang, a 'taiyiyuanzhe' 太醫院者[Chinese name given to the physicians of the Imperial Household] who was aboard the ship was informed that his wife had died, so [the physician] asked a native to take a letter to Xiyang, his homeland, requesting that the King give half of his salary to his family to help support his children."6 The 'taiyiyuanzhe in question may have been a physician of Portugal's Royal Household. Because of his wife's death, he asked a local resident to take a request to the King of Portugal, so that half of his salary would remain in Portugal and be allocated to the support of his children. Most of the stories mentioned above were Xie Qinggao's personal experiences.
Many place-names in Hai Lu are derived from Portuguese and were transcribed into Chinese by Yang Bingnan according to their pronunciation in Portuguese. The section of the book on the Tainiguo 太呢國 (Pattani, in Thailand)says that gold was found on most of its mountains and that the summit where gold was produced was called Aluoshuai 阿羅帥. 7 In this case, Aluoshi probably corresponds to the Portuguese word 'ouro' (gold) and means 'gold mine'. After Bombay, Su La 蘇辣 (Surat), Dan Xiang 淡項 (Dio?), Ji Du 喞肚(Kathiawar Peninsula) and other places on the West coast of India are introduced, the book goes on to say: "The people from Xiyang called the region from Mingyala 明呀喇 [Bengala] to here Geshita 哥什塔, and we called it Xiao Xiyang. 8” The coastal region of India is usually divided into two parts: 'Bay' and 'Coast'. 'Bay' corresponds to the coast of the Bay of Bengal, and 'Coast' refers to the West coast, where Goa and Dio (which at the time were Portuguese Colonies) are located. In the seventeenth century the Chinese began calling Portugal Da Xiyang 大西洋 (Big Western Ocean), and Goa and Dio -- areas administered by the Portuguese — Xiao Xiyang 小西洋(Small Western Ocean). Geshita is, without a doubt, the phonetic translation of the Portuguese term 'costa' (coast), but Xie Qinggao was mistaken in saying that Bengal was part of the 'Coast'. The book mentions that Brazil's capital is Yannilu 沿你路, a phonetic translation of the Portuguese word 'Janeiro' (January), a term contained in the placename Rio de Janeiro. 10
When Xie Qinggao narrated Hai Lu, he used Portuguese names to designate not only places, but also countries, the latter being much greater in number than the former. In the Preface to the book, Yang Bingnan stated that when Xie Qinggao mentioned the names of the foreign countries he pronounced them according to the dialects of Xi Yang, the sounds of which sometimes could not be matched with Chinese characters. Ya Li Pi Hua 亞哩披華 is the phonetic translation of the Portuguese name Antuérpia (Antwerp, Belgium). Other examples are: Duigu, which corresponds to Turquia (Turkey) and Yidanian 一大輦, corresponding to 'italiano' (Italian). 11 When Yang Bingnan translated the Portuguese names mentioned by Xie Qinggao, he limited himself to Chinese characters with similar sounds, in order to retain the original sound of the foreign name. 12 Chinese characters were also used for the phonetic translation of Portuguese names in the list of translated terms entitled Ao Yi 澳譯(Translations from Macao) that was annexed to Ao Fan Pian 澳蕃篇 (About the foreigners in Macao), one of the volumes of Aomen Jilue 澳门紀略 (Monograph of Macao), a book written by Yin Guangren 印光任 and Zhang Rulin 张汝霖 which was published in 1751. 13 But in Ao Ye the number of names of places and countries is very limited, whereas in Hai Lu Yang Bingnan translated a large number of names of places, countries and other things, taking a major step forward in relation to Ao Ye and making an invaluable contribution to the history of Sino-Portuguese linguistic exchange.
Further study is needed to determine the country of origin of the ship on which Xie Qinggao sailed for fourteen years. Chinese scholars have yet to come to a definite conclusion on this matter. When Feng Chengjun, a famous authority on the history of Sino-Western relations and transportation, added notes to Hai Lu, he corrected the names translated into Chinese, making every effort to find in the Western language names corresponding to the Chinese translations, thus producing the best edition of the book. However, he merely said that the foreign ship on which Xie Qinggao worked was probably English or Portuguese. 14 Another authority on the history of Sino-Western relations and transportation, professor Zhu Jieqin 朱杰勤, also said that Xie Qinggao went to foreign countries at the age of eighteen, on an English or a Portuguese ship, and spent fourteen years overseas. 15 In his book entitled Destination: The world, Zhong Shuhe gives the following opinion: Xie Qinggao spoke in relative detail about Da Xiyang (Portugal), Yingjieli 咭利 (England) and Mie Li Gan 咩里干 (the Americas), but the country on which he gave the most information was Da Xiyang, "[...] so it can be deduced that the ship on which Xie sailed was Portuguese."16 However, Zhong Shuhe did not arrive at a definite conclusion.
Hai Lu contains sufficient evidence of Xie Qinggao's having sailed on a Portuguese ship. According to Yang Bingnan, the ship on which Xie Qinggao was travelling was caught in a storm and sank, but he was rescued by a foreign ship and remained on it to do business. This means that the ship on which Xie Qinggao sailed was precisely the one that had come to his rescue. Xie Qinggao himself always said that he sailed on a foreign ship from Xiyang. The section of the book on Xiao Xiyang contains the following sentence: "Xie Qinggao said that he had been to that place on a foreign ship from Xiyang."17 The section on Kaiyu 开于 (Kuril Islands?) says: "Xie Qinggao mentioned that he had been to that place on a seafaring ship from Xiyang to buy grey squirrel and fox furs."18
To find out whether the "foreign ship from Xiyang"or the "seafaring ship from Xiyang" was Portuguese, we must first determine if Xiyang, the country mentioned in Hai Lu, is in fact Portugal. The section of the book on Da Xiyang refers exclusively to Portugal; this is an established fact. However, since the end of the Ming dynasty, the word Xiyang (Western Ocean) has had two meanings. In its broadest sense, the term refers to the countries in Europe and the Americas that border on the Atlantic (in Chinese, the Atlantic [Ocean] is called Da Xiyang and literally means 'Big Occidental Ocean'). It follows that the inhabitants of European and American countries are called Xiyangren 西洋人 (people of the Occidental Ocean). More specifically, Xiyang refers to Portugal and is an abbreviation of 'Da Xingyang' 大西洋. In addition, during the Qing dynasty Portuguese navigators who were in Macao were called 'xiyang bing tou' 西洋兵頭 (leaders of the soldiers of Xiyang). I analyzed the meaning of the term Xiyang as it is used in Hai Lu, and I found that in every instance it refers exclusively to Portugal. In the book, Occidental countries, such as England, France, Holland, Spain and the United States of America are clearly distinguished from each other, and Xiyang is considered a country; it is placed alongside the others and compared to them. For example, the book says that Di Wen 地問 (Timor) is a large Island in the Southeastern Sea, "[...] the Western part of the island, Timor, is administered by Xiyang, and the Northeastern part, Kupang, is administered by Holland."19 Timor is on the Eastern side of the Island of Timor, and Kupang is on the Southwestern side. Xie Qinggao got the geographic position of the two areas mixed up, but he made a clear distinction between the Portuguese colony of Timor and the Dutch colony of Kupang. In relation to Xiao Lu Song 小呂宋 (Luzon, or Manila) the book says that the area "[...] was administered by Lu Song, so it became known as Xiao (small) Lu Song [...] its customs and habits are the" same as those of Xiyang, [the inhabitants] are violent, have no scruples, and like to fight."20 The section on Da (big) Lu Song 大呂宋 says that the area was North, and a bit West, of Xiyang. 21 In these cases, Lu Song (Da Lu Song) and Xiyang (Da Xiyang) obviously refer to two neighbouring countries on the Iberian Peninsula -- Spain and Portugal. The section on Yingjieli (England) says that "[...] its other customs and habits are more or less like those of Xiyang.'22 And the section on Sui Yi Gu 綏亦古 (Sweden) says that "[...] its territory is more or less the same as that of Xiyang.'"23 In these cases, Xiyang always refers to Portugal, and from that it can be affirmed that the "foreign ship from Xiyang [... or the...] seafaring ship from Xiyang", on which Xie Qinggao sailed, was Portuguese.
As for Xie Qinggao's role aboard the Portuguese ship, it has been said that he was either a merchant or a mariner. Yang Bingnan said that Xie Qinggao was rescued by a foreign ship and remained on it to do business, as mentioned above. Xie Qinggao also said that he had been to Kai Yu on the foreign ship from Xiyang to buy furs. These references seem to suggest that Xie Qinggao was a merchant. But Li Zhaoluo, basing himself on the opinion of Wu Lanxiu (who was also a juren from Jiaqing, like Yang Bingnan, and who also produced notes for Hai Lu but never saw the book published), said in his Hai Guo Ji Wen Xu 海國紀聞序 (Preface to Information on the Coastal countries) that from his youth Xie Qinggao "[...] travelled to the coastal countries aboard a foreign merchant ship [...] having lost the sight in both his eyes, he can no longer manoeuvre the ship and has turned to commerce to earn a living."24 The expression "manoeuvre the ship" suggests that Xie Qinggao was part of the crew of the Portuguese ship. It was for this reason that Chen Huaxin said that Xie Qinggao worked as a mariner on a foreign ship. 25
In the eighteenth century, there was a shortage of labour, so Chinese men were often recruited to work on merchant ships from Western countries when the latter were in China on business. Xie Qinggao was only eighteen years old when he first boarded the foreign ship, so he more likely than not became a sailor. The men who worked on foreign merchant ships were allowed to conduct a bit of personal business, so when he was older and had some savings, Xie Qinggao probably engaged in some personal business or helped the Portuguese merchants, taking advantage of his good knowledge of the coastal countries, and of Eastern and Western languages. And it was only because he had earned some money and acquired property through his commercial activities on the Portuguese ship that Xie Qinggao was able to devote himself to commerce to support himself later on in Macao.
The text narrated by Xie Qinggao about Da Xiyang is the longest one in Hai Lu. The book has approximately nineteen thousand characters in all, of which four thousand nine hundred are found in the third volume (about Europe, the Americas, Africa, Oceania and the Pacific Islands). The section on Da Xiyang is at the beginning of the third volume and has more or less one thousand nine hundred characters, that is, one tenth of the total number of characters in the book and one third of those in the third volume. It describes the Country's territory, ports, civil and military hierarchy, houses, clothing, marriage, religion, formalities, products, and so on. The description is more direct, and therefore more detailed and more correct, than the description of Portugal found in Ao Fan Pian 澳蕃篇. With respect to the methods used in Portuguese ports to examine people and the preventive measures taken, Hai Lu explains that officials were first sent aboard the ships to check if there was anyone with smallpox. If there was, they were not allowed to enter the port until they had recovered. 26 The book also describes the way people dressed in Portugal: "On their upper body the men wear short jackets, and on their lower body, pants. The pieces are all close-fitting and barely cover the body. When they have something [important] to do, they put on another coat, which is short at the front and long at the back like the wings of a cicada. Public officials have something on their shoulders that resembles a bottle gourd, the gold one representing a higher rank than the silver one. Their hats are round, with straight sides, a flat top and a full brim. The women's outer clothes are also short and close-fitting. They wear skirts instead of pants and may wear eight or nine of them. The poor wear cotton skirts; the rich, silk. The women all think that fine, light [skirts] are the best."27
The book says a great deal about the prosperity of the Catholic Church in Portugal; it describes the church wedding and the confession of sins to priests, and specifies that: "Those who went to China to be 'qintianjian' 欽天監 [those responsible for matters related to Astronomy and the Seasons] and to Macao to be great monks [Bishops] are generally from that country."28Xie Qinggao also said that at the time in Portugal the rich were distinguished from the poor, and between the men there was a completely open relationship related to money. He said, for example: "[...] they appreciate the rich and despise the poor. If people are rich, the poor — even if they are their brothers or sisters, aunts or uncles, nieces or nephews — do not dare enter their house or have meals with them."29
Compared to the other sections of Hai Lu, the one on Da Xiyang contains more names translated from Portuguese, including place-names, titles and forms of address of the Royal Family and the aristocracy, and titles of Civil and Military Officials. The original term for most of the names translated into Chinese can be found in Portuguese, with the same or similar sounds. The following are examples: Bulujishi (Port.: Português; or: Portuguese), Yujiwoya 預濟窩亞(Port.: Lisboa; or: Lisbon), Jinbala (Coimbra), li 哩 (Port.: rei; or: king), bilinxipi 咇林西彼 (Port.: príncipe; or: Prince), bilinsuoshi 咇林梭使 (Port.: princesa; or: Princess), gandie 干爹 (Port.: conde; or: Count), shanshili 善施哩(Port.: chanceler; or: Chancellor), mingnishilu 明你什路(Port.: ministro; or: Minister), weiyiduo 威伊哆 (Port.: prefeito; or: Prefect), youyishi 油衣使(Port.: juíz; or: Judge), diezoulilu 爹佐理路(Port.: tesoureiro; or: Treasurer), malajizha 嗎喇嘰乍 (Port.: marechal; or: Marshal), guoluo 果囉 (Port.: coronel; or: Colonel), manyou 蠻喲 (Port.: major; or: Major), gabidan 呷咇丹 (Port.: capitão; or: Captain), gabidanmalarela 呷咇丹嗎喇惹喇(port.: capitão-de-mar-e-guerra; or: Captain), gabidandielindi 呷咇丹嗲領第 (capitão-tenente; or: Lieutenant-Captain). 30 The Portuguese terms expressed by Chinese characters with similar sounds evoke a type of Portuguese that is not pure and has no grammatical rules (pidgin Portuguese), which was also the case with Ao Ye, but they represent completely new material, something the latter did not offer. The Portuguese terms were not obtained without difficulty: a Chinese mariner, who could not read or write Chinese or Portuguese, traversed the oceans several times over a period of fourteen years, acquired knowledge in Portugal and recorded his memoirs with the help of Chinese scholars.
At the age of thirty-one Xie Qinggao settled in Macao. It has been said that at the time he worked as an interpreter or a merchant. Yang Bingnan said he "[...] lost his sight later on, could no longer work, settled in Macao and earned a living as an interpreter."31 But Wu Lanxiu said: "[...] having lost the sight in both his eyes, [he] can no longer manoeuvre the ship and has turned to commerce to earn a living."32 Zhong Shuhe thought that it was impossible for a blind man to work as a professional interpreter and that Xie Qinggao probably just took advantage of his knowledge of Portuguese to open his own shop, so he disagreed with Yang Bingnan. 33But, in my opinion, Yang Bingnan and Wu Lanxiu were both Xie Qinggao's contemporaries and recorded Hai Lu for him, so what they said was not unfounded. On the other hand, there are no irreconcilable contradictions in the two versions.
Before the mid-eighteenth century, Portuguese was the language used in Sino-Western trade at the port of Guangzhou. Knowledge of Portuguese was an important requirement for the Chinese who wanted to act as interpreters or agents for the foreign merchants. Later on, as the English merchants improved their position in commerce, Portuguese gave way to English but remained important in Macao, in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Because of his health, it would have been difficult for Xie Qinggao to work as a professional interpreter for the Portuguese or Chinese Authorities, but given his experience and his knowledge of Portuguese, he might very well have been paid for interpreting within the context of Sino-Portuguese commercial activities and contacts of an unofficial nature. Since Xie Qinggao was not a professional interpreter, he did not have a fixed income, so he needed some type of small business. Professor Fang Hao found an official document at the Arquivo Nacional Torre do Tombo (National Archives of the "Torre do Tombo"), in Lisbon, that deals with a dispute between Xie Qinggao and two Portuguese men living in Macao. The document was sent by the Mandarin of the Distric of Xiangshan around the 3rd of August (Chinese lunar calendar) of the eleventh year (1806) of the Jiaqing Emperor reign. It says that Xie Qinggao rented a shop located in Ju Zaiyuan from a Portuguese man called Yan Duo Ni Chao (António Gonzaga?) and paid an annual rent of over seven silver coins. Ge Chao's nephew, Yan Duo Ni Fang Xi Jia (António Francisco?), did business with Xie and owed him one hundred and fifty foreign silver coins, but he refused to pay. Fang Xi Jia gave Xie a shop located in Hong Chuang Men 紅窗門 on which the latter could collect rent and keep the profits. However, Ge Chao did not allow Xie to collect the rent and wanted him to continue paying rent on the shop located in Juzai Yuan. Unable to recover his loss, Xie Qinggao had no choice but to appeal to the Mandarin of the District of Xiangshan, whose Office was in the village of Wang Xia 望廈 (Guang.: Mong Há), to negotiate with the Portuguese Authorities in order to expedite the payment of the debt. 34 Xie Qinggao was forty-one at the time, having spent ten years in Macao since losing his sight. The evidence provided by the document is difficult to refute, and it shows that Xie Qinggao had a small business in Macao. Because of his handicap, Xie Qinggao settled in Macao, but he was humiliated by dishonest Portuguese men, which inspires great sympathy for him.
Xie Qinggao was the first Chinese person to acquaint his countrymen with Portugal, about two hundred years ago. When he was young, he was enthusiastically rescued from a shipwreck by the Portuguese. In old age, he was humiliated by dishonest Portuguese. A year before he died, he produced the book Hai Lu with the help of Yang Bingnan, who thought"[..] that what he did, saw and heard over the course of his life could be left for posterity, rendering him immortal."35 Xie Qinggao was a common man who could not read or write Chinese or Portuguese, yet he was an immortal figure in the history of Sino-Western relations and transportation, and in the history of Sino-Portuguese cultural exchange. He should occupy an important place in the history of Sino-Portuguese cultural exchange.
Translated from a Portuguese version of the Chinese original by: Paula Sousa
Ao Fan Pian 澳蕃篇
Aomen Jilue 澳門紀略
Ao Yi 澳譯 Aoyi
Che Cheng Kou 謝淸高 Xie Qinggao
Chen Huaxin 陳新華
Da Lu Song 大呂宋 Da Lusong
Da Xiyang 大西洋
Dan Xiang 淡項
Fang Hao 方豪
Feng Chengjun 馮承鈞
Guzai Yuan 古仔園
Hai Guo Ji Wen Xu 海國紀聞序
Hai Guo Tu Zhi 海國圖志
Hai Lu 海錄
Hong Chuang Men 紅窗門
Ji Du 喞肚 Jidu
Jia Yingzhou 嘉應州
Jie Lan Dan 咭丹
Jin Pan Bao 今盘堡
Kai Yu 开于
Xu Jishe 徐繼畬
Li Zhaoluo 李兆洛
Lin Zexu 林則徐
Lin Zexu Ji 林則徐集
Lu Song 呂宋 Lusong
Luo Shi 阿羅師
Mie Li Gan 咩里干
Su La 蘇辣 Sula
Sui Yi Gu 綏亦古 Suiyigu
Wang Xia 望廈
Wang Zhen 王軫
Wei Yuan 魏源
Wen Shi 文史
Wu Lanxiu 吳蘭修
xiyang bing tou 西洋兵頭
Xiao Lu Song 小呂宋 Xiao Lusong
Xiao Xiyang 小西洋
Xie Qinggao 謝淸高
Xu Jishe 徐繼畬
Ya Li Pi Hua 亞理披華
Yan Ni Lu 沿你路 Yannilu
Yang Bingnan 楊炳南
Yang Yi Qi 養一齊
Yang Yi Qi Wen Ji 養一齊文集
Yin Guangren 印光任
Ying Huan Zhi Lue 瀛寰志略 Ying Huanzhilue
Zhang Rulin 張汝霖
Zhang Wenqin 章文欽
Zhong Shuhe 鍾叔河
Zhu Jieqin 朱杰勤
Zou Gao Zhong 奏稿中
1 Xie Qinggao 謝淸高 (Guang.: Che Cheng Kou).
2 Lin Zexu Ji: Zou Gao Zhong 林則徐·集奏稿中 (Works of Lin Ze Xu: Memorials presented to the Emperor), China Publishing House, 1965, Part. 2, p.680.
3 XIE Qinggao 謝淸高 [narrator] - YANG Bingnan 楊炳南 [writter], annot. FENG Cheng Jun 馮承鈞, Hai Lu 海錄, China Publishing House, 1955, p.47.
4 Ibidem., p.54.
5 Ibidem., p.41.
6 Ibidem., p.32.
7 Ibidem., pp. 7-8 — The text on Jie Lan Dan 咭×丹 (Kelantan) (p. 11) also says that in the Western part of the country there was a small river that led to "Aluoshuai 阿羅帥(Pattani) Tai Ni 太呢 (gold)". In this case, Aluoshuai is also a place-name.
8 Ibidem., pp. 33-35.
9 YIN Guangren 印光任 - ZHANG Rulin 张汝霖, Aomen Jilue 澳門紀略(Monograph of Macao), in HUANG Shang, ed., "Qingdai ke yi yu" ("A Part of the Cut Blocks for Printing of the Qing dynasty"), Qi-Lu Publishing House, 1992, part. 2 (Ao Fan Pian (About the foreigners in Macao)), p.24 — A poem by Wang Zhen 王軫:
"Sad, tired, languishing
Alone yet another day
She may go to church to pray
For her husband did not return from Ge Si De."
The poem describes how Portuguese women who lived alone in Macao yearned for their husbands' return from business trips to faraway places. In this case, Ge Si De is obviously another form of phonetic translation of the word costa (coast). and, like Ge Shi Ta 哥什嗒, refers to Goa and other places in Portuguese India.
10 XIE Qinggao 謝淸高 - Yang Bingnan 楊炳南, op. cit., p.77.
11 Ibidem., pp. 71, 72, 74.
12 Ibidem., p. 1 — Preface.
13 See: My article on this book in the periodical "Wen Shi", China Publishing House, 33.
14 XIE Qinggao 謝淸高 - YANG Bingnan 楊炳南, op. cit., p.3 — Preface.
15 ZHU Jieqin 朱杰勤, Zhongwai guanxishi lunwenji 中外關系史論文集 (Studies on the history of Sino-foreign relations), Henan Popular Printing Press, 1984, p.28.
16 ZHONG Shuhe 鍾叔河, Zouxiang shijie 走向世界 (Destination: The world-history of research on the West done by modern intellectuals), China Publishing House, 1985, p.47.
17 XIE Qinggao 謝淸高 -YANG Bingnan 楊炳南, op. cit., p.32.
18 Ibidem., p.80.
19 Ibidem., p.57.
20 Ibidem., p.59
21 Ibidem., p.68.
22 Ibidem., p.74.
24 LI Zhaoluo 李兆洛, Yang Yi Qi Wen Ji 養一齊文 (Works of Yang Yi Qi), vol. 2, edition of the fourth year of the reign of Guangxu, pp. 23-24.
25 CHEN Huaxin 陳新華, Diyige Zhouyou shijie de Zhongguo gongren — Qingdai haiyuan Xie Qinggao he takoushu de Hailu 第一個周游世界的中國工人-請代海員謝淸高和他口述的<海錄> (The first Chinese worker who travelled throughout the world— Xie Qinggao, a Qing dynasty mariner, and Maritime journals, a book narrated by him), published in the "Diário dos Operários", August 18, 1962.
26 XIE Qinggao 謝淸高 - Yang Bingnan 楊炳南, op. cit., p.63.
27 Ibidem., p.64.
28 Ibidem., p.67.
29 Ibidem., p.68.
30 I found some Portuguese terms in the Zhongpu Zidian 中葡字典 Dicionário Chinês-Português, Macau, 官印局橡皮印刷 Imprensa Nacional de Macau, 1962 and the Puzhong Zidian 葡中字典 Dicionário Português-Chinês, Macau, 澳門政府印刷署 Imprensa Oficial de Macau, .
31 XIE Qinggao 謝淸高 - YANG Bingnan 楊炳南, op. cit., p. 1 — Preface.
33 ZHONG Shuhe 鍾叔河, op. cit., p. 45.
34 FANG Hao 方豪, Zhongxi jiaotong shi 中西交通史 (History of Sino-western relations and transportation), Taiwan 台灣, Hua Gang 華門,1977, vol. 4., pp. 119-120.
35 XIE Qinggao 謝淸高 - YANG Bingman 楊炳南, op. cit., p.1 — Preface.
* BA in History from the University of Zhongshan, where he presently is an Associate Professor. Member of the Association of Chinese History on the Pacific Area, and of the Association of History of Guangdong. Author of Notes and Commentaries on Poems about Macao and Documentation on the History and Culture of Macao. Editor of the following publications in Chinese: William C. Hunter, The Fan Kwae at Canton: 1825-1844, Taipei, Ch'eng wen, 1965, and Bits of old China, Taipei, Ch'eng wen, 1965; Andrew Ljungstedt, An Historical Sketch of the Portuguese Settlements in China; and of the Roman Catholic Church and Mission in China [...]; Boston, James Monroe & Co., 1836; and Hosea Ballou Morse, The chronicles of the East India Company trading to China: 1635-1834, Taipei, Ch'eng wen, 1966.
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